Разделы

КОНТРОЛЬНЫЕ ЗАДАНИЯ

          Номер варианта контрольного задания соответствует последней цифре номера студенческого билета. Студенты, номер студенческого билета которых оканчивается на 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, выполняют вариант №1; на 2, 4, 6, 8, 0, – выполняют вариант №2.

 

 

 

 КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ  ЗАДАНИЕ  №1

Для того чтобы выполнить задание №1, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы  грамматики:

  1. степени сравнения прилагательных и наречий
  2. вопросы к членам предложения
  3. видовременные формы Indefinite (Present, Past, Present Perfect), Continuous (Present, Past, Future), согласование времен
  4. модальные глаголы can, must, may и их эквиваленты, модальный глагол should
  5. формы инфинитива

Степени сравнения прилагательных

  сравнительная превосходная
односложные

young, big, short

younger, bigger, shorter youngest, biggest, shortest
прилагательные, оканчивающиеся на y

lovely, pretty, fanny

lovelier, prettier,  funnier loveliest, prettiest, funniest
двусложные прилагательные more pleasant

more annoyed

more modern

more careful

more careless

most pleasant

most annoyed

most modern

most careful

most careless

многосложные прилагательные more expensive

more attractive

more exciting

more intelligent

most expensive

most attractive

most exciting

most intelligent

good, bad, far better, worse, further/farther best, worst, furthest/farthest

Степени сравнения наречий

    сравнительная превосходная
наречия, оканчивающиеся    на  ly carefully

quickly

more carefully

more quickly

most carefully

most quickly

наречия, имеющие ту же форму, что и прилагательные fast

hard

early

faster

harder

earlier

fastest

hardest

earliest

  badly

well

little

much

worse

better

less

more

worst

best

least

most

 

В предложениях со степенями сравнения прилагательных и наречий  используются следующие союзы и способы выражения сравнения:
as…as, the…the, much, less, more, a bit, far

You walk as fast as you brother does.

The harder I try, the worse I seem to do.

She woks harder than I do.

This actress is less famous than that one.

It’s getting more and more difficult to find a quiet beach.

 

Формы инфинитива

infinitive (to) do
continuous infinitive (to) be doing
perfect infinitive (to) have done
perfect continuous  infinitive (to)have been doing
passive infinitive (to) be done
perfect passive infinitive (to) have been done

 

Модальные глаголы

 

модальный глагол модальное значение  примеры
can (could) эквивалент        to be able to
  1. способность, возможность, умение
  2. сомнение, предложение
He can speak English

Can you do it?  She couldn’t come.

You will be able to come tomorrow.

It can rain.

Can they be home?

may(might) эквивалент       to be allowed to
  1. возможность, разрешение

 

 

 

 

  1. сомнение, предположение
May I come in? – Yes, you may. She might go for a walk.

The children will be allowed to swim if the weather is warm.

 

It may rain. They may come soon.

must

 

 

 

 

 

mustn’t

  1. необходимость

 

 

  1. предположение, уверенность

 

3. запрещение

You must know the subject.

He must try to do the work.

 

She must be still working. This must be your coat.

 

You mustn’t go out today.

have to необходимость, вызванная обстоятельствами I have to get up very early.

Do you have to work hard?

We didn’t have to wait.

should желательность действия, совет You should follow my advice.

You shouldn’t miss classes.

to be необходимость, связанная с договоренностью или планом He is to arrive on Monday. Am I to come at 5?

The meeting is to last three hours.

needn’t =don’t

have to

отсутствие необходимости You needn’t do it now. = You don’t have to do it now.

He needn’t buy the tickets. = He doesn’t have to buy them.

 

 

ВАРИАНТ № 1.

  1. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную степень сравненияприлагательного/наречия:

 

1) His plan is (practical) of all.

2) London is one of (large) city in England.

3) It is one of (important) questions of our conference.

4) Your English is (good) now.

5) Even (long) day has an end.

6) It was (bad) mistake I’ve ever made.

 

 

  1. II. Переведите предложения на русский язык (письменно).

 

1) The more I learn English, the letter I can speak it.

2) The more you read, the more you like this book.

3) The farther from work you live, the more time you spend to get there.

 

III. Поставьте вопросы ко всем членам предложения. (Письменно).

1) We pay special attention to management at  our  University.

2) Usually it takes me an hour to get to the University.

 

  1. IV. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Обведите его.

 

1) I usually spend Sunday afternoon … a football match.

  1. a) seeing
  2. b) looking
  3. c) watching
  4. There won’t be any trouble, …?
  5. a) will it
  6. b) won’t there
  7. c) will there

 

  1. I was tired, and so … the others.
  2. a) were
  3. b) was
  4. c) are
  5. She … me that she would be late.
  6. a) said
  7. b) told
  8. c) spoke
  9. This collection of paintings attracts … 3000000 people a day.
  10. a) by
  11. b) over
  12. c) in

 

  1. V. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в соответствующей форме.

 

  1. When I (to see) him, he (to paint) a picture of his life.
  2. I (to see, not) you for ages.
  3. We (to hear) nothing about each other since we (to leave) school.
  4. (to hear) the weather forecast for tomorrow?
  5. Shocking day, isn’t it? The rain (to fall) still.

 

 

  1. VI. Выберите подходящие по смыслу слова и вставьте в пропуски. Подчеркните их.

 

How to write a resume.

 

No matter what method of job hunting you use; inevitably somebody will ask you for a resume. Most companies … a resume before seriously considering a job  candidate from outside. Resume are sometimes also required … receive a job transfer within a company. … of a resume is to help you obtain a job interview, not a job. Very few people are hired without … . Effective resumes are presentations of a person’s … and accomplishments. They are … over detailed … too sketchy. A general rule is that two or three pages … is best. One page seems too superficial; a four page (or longer) resume may irritate an impatient employment official. Some writers … that a chronological (the standard-type) resume be used; other argue for an accomplishment resume. A useful resume should include … your experiences … key accomplishment.

Слова: In order to; a personal interview; both… and; require; the purpose; neither … nor; suggest; in length; experience.

 

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

 

  1. What is the purpose of a resume?
  2. What are effective resumes?
  3. What is the length of effective resumes?
  4. What should a useful resume include?

 

 

ВАРИАНТ № 2.

  1. Раскройте скобки, употребив нужную степень сравнения прилагательного/ наречия:

 

  1. It’s one of (difficult) questions in this test.
  2. Who knows him (well) than you?
  3. We have (little) interest in this work than you.
  4. Health is (good) than wealth usually.
  5. Today you worked (slowly) than usually.
  6. Which is (long) day of the year?

 

  1. II. Переведите предложения на русский язык (письменно).

 

  1. The sooner you come the better.
  2. The louder you speak, the better they can hear you.
  3. The darker the night, the brighter is the Moon in the sky.

 

III. Поставьте вопросы ко всем членам предложения. (письменно)

 

  1. Student learn many important disciplines at our University.
  2. Every day it takes her half an hour to get to her work.

 

  1. IV. Выберите правильный вариант ответа. Обведите его.

 

  1. He left home without … money.
  2. a) some
  3. b) any
  4. c) no
  5. Tell me … Friday whether or not you can come to the party.
  6. a) at
  7. b) until
  8. c) by
  9. He has never been late, …?
  10. a) has he
  11. b) hasn’t he

c)doesn’t he

  1. He was on holiday. He … start work till autumn.
  2. a) wasn’t
  3. b) ought not

c)didn’t have to

  1. I have never heard … ridiculous story.
  2. a) such
  3. b) so
  4. c) such a

 

 

  1. V. Раскройте скобки и поставьте глагол в соответствующей форме.

 

  1. Our next door neighbor (to wash) his car every Sunday.
  2. Last summer I (to go) to the beach almost every day.
  3. “Oh, it (to belong) to me. Thank you.”
  4. We (to talk) when somebody knocked at the door.
  5. When we got to the airport, I realized I (leave) my passport at you home.

 

 

  1. VI. Выберите подходящие по смыслу слова, вставьте пропуски. Подчеркните их.

 

Job Fairs

 

Although a certain percentage of graduates will still be (1)……(employ)  six months after leaving university, the majority will have found (2)…….(employ)  by then. Many of these will even have been offered a job while at university, as a result of visiting a job fair.

Job fairs are held at many universities each year. Companies come along to advertise jobs, which are usually in (3) …….(manage), and the career structures and benefit packages that go with them. Job fairs are an (4)….…(effect) way for undergraduates to find out what kind of job they might be interested in.

If you go to a job fair, dress (5) ….…(profession) . Don’t wear jeans and T-shirt.  Wear a suit! You don’t want to look (6)…….(responsible) when you have your first (7)………(meet) with your potential (8)………(employ). If you’re interested in a job on offer, you may have to fill out an (9) ……..(apply) form, so it’s (10) ……..(help) to take along relevant information with you. You’ll also need proof of all your (11) ……..(qualify), so don’t forget to take photocopies of all your certificates with you.

Слова: professionally, qualifications, helpful, application, meeting, employer, effective, irresponsible, unemployed, management, employment.

 

 

 

VII. Ответьте письменно на вопросы к тексту.

  1. Will the majority of graduates have found employment at once after leaving University?
  2. What do you know about job fairs?
  3. Is it effective way for undergraduates to find out the job?
  4. How should you dress when you go to a job fair.
  5. Will you need proof of all yo

 

КОНТРОЛЬНОЕ  ЗАДАНИЕ  №2

Для того,  чтобы выполнить задание №2, необходимо усвоить следующие разделы грамматики:

  1. Пассивный залог
  2. Модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом
  3. Причастие
  4. Сослагательное наклонение в придаточных предложениях условия

 

Употребление сослагательного  наклонения и придаточных предложениях условия

в простых предложениях и в главных в условных придаточных предложениях
I should this work (today, tomorrow)

I should have done this work (yesterday)

If I had time

If I had had time

If, unless,

provided

 

Формы причастия

  Active Passive
Present

Perfect

Past

Writing

Having written

Being written

Having been written

Written

 

Participle I

Participle I имеет суффикс ing, который прибавляется к инфинитиву глагола без частицы to

Член предложения Вопрос Позиция Перевод
1. Определенное Какой? До или после существительного Причастием настоящего времени (суффикс –ущ, – ющ )либо с помощью сkjdf «который»
2. Обстоятельство Где?

Когда?

Как?

Почему?

Конец или начало предложения (до подлежащего). Перед Participle I  могут быть союзы when, while Деепричастием (суффикс –я). Союзы не переводятся

Примечание 1. Participle I с относящимися к нему словами есть причастный оборот. Причастный оборот – одно место в предложении, т.е. один член предложения. Если  Participle I – определение, то оборот называется причастным определенным  оборотом; если оно обстоятельство, то оборот – причастный обстоятельственный.

  1. Participle I имеет смысл действительного залога, т.е. лицо (предмет) само выполняет действие

Participle I

Пример: 1. While reading this text we learned a lot of new expressions.

Читая этот текст, мы узнали много новых выражений.

Reading – Participle I в функции обстоятельства.

  1. Students coming to Moscow to study usually live in hotels.

Студенты, приезжающие в Москву учиться, обычно живут в общежитиях.

Coming – Participle I в функции определения.

Past Participle

Имеет  суффикс ed (правильные глаголы), у неправильных глаголов это III колонка по таблице спряжений.

 

Функция Перевод
1. Определение Причастием прошедшего времени либо с помощью слова «который»
2. Обстоятельство (перед Past Participle

стоят союзы  when, if)

Глаголом во времени по правилу перевода страдательного залога

 

Примечание: 1. Past Participle с относящимися к нему словами есть причастный оборот, который является одним членом предложения.

2.Participle, стоящее после существительного и не имеющее относящихся к нему слов, является  определением и переводятся до определяемого существительного либо с помощью слова «который».

Пример: the goods delivered –  доставленные товары; товары, которые доставили.

  1. О способах определения функции см. таблицу «Participle I»

Past Participle

Пример:1. Many states established after the World War II soon  became higly developed industrial states.

Многие государства, созданные после второй мировой войны, вскоре стали высокоразвитыми промышленными государствами.

EstablishedPast Participle в функции определения.

  1. When invited by his friends to see a new exhibition he thanked them.

Когда друзья пригласили его посмотреть новую выставку, он поблагодарил их.

Invited – Past Participle в функции обстоятельства.

 

Active voice

I Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Время (характеристика) Действие как факт (обычное, постоянное, повторяющееся) Действие как процесс (незаконченный, длящийся) Действие, предшествующее какому-то моменту
Present Ask

Asks

 

Спрашиваю (вообще, всегда, обычно)

Am asking

Are asking

Is asking

Спрашиваю (сейчас)

Have asked

Has asked

 

Уже спросил

Past Asked

 

Спросил, спрашивал (когда-то)

Was asking

Were asking

Спрашивал (в тот момент)

Has asked

 

Уже спросил (к тому моменту)

Future Shall ask

Will ask

Спрошу

Shall be asking

Will be asking

Буду спрашивать (в тот момент)

Shall have asked

Will have asked

Уже спрошу (к тому моменту)

 

Passive voice

2 Indefinite Continuous Perfect
Present Am asked

Are asked

Is asked

Спрашивают (вообще, всегда, обычно)

Am being asked

Are being asked

Is  being asked

Спрашивают (сейчас)

Have been asked

Has been asked

 

Уже спросили

Past Was asked

Were asked

Спросили (вчера)

Was being asked

Were being asked

Спрашивали (в тот момент)

Had been asked

 

Уже спросили (к тому моменту)

Future Shall be asked

Will be asked

спросят

Shall have been asked

Will have been asked

Уже спросят (к тому моменту)

 

Вариант 1

  1. I. Спишите предложения, поставив сказуемое в пассивном залоге. Используйте предлог by, где это необходимо

Модель.

The customers can pay their household accounts by electronic transfer.

The household accounts can be laid by the customers by electronic transfer

 

  1. The insurance company pays compensation in case of a natural disaster.
  2. We have promoted our goods and services on the points of sale throughout the year.
  3. My friend has just advised me to deposit my savings with a bank.
  4. They are repairing my car now. I can’t drive it.
  5. We had already reached the decision before the general discussion began.
  6. The customers bought there articles during the sale. We can’t exchange them.
  7. II. Спишите предложения и подчеркните сказуемые, содержащие модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом. Переведите предложения
  8. The results were completely wrong as a scientist she should have planned the experiment more carefully.
  9. The personnel director might have chosen Mike for the job, he looked happy after the interview.
  10. The firm must have become bankrupt, it is selling out its shares.
  11. He couldn’t have taken part in the negotiations. He was on a business trip at that time.
  12. Let’s go and discuss the problem with Mike. He must have finished working by now.

III. Спишите предложения, подчеркните причастия, укажите их форму и функцию (см. модель)

  1. Impressed by Alan’s work, the manager extended his contract for year.
  2. Being unemployed, Dave had time to consider what job he really wanted.
  3. The consumers usually study the quality of goods offered by foreign producers at a particular market.
  4. Knowing exactly what I wanted, I didn’t spend much time shopping.
  5. Unless properly packed, the goods won’t attract the customers and sell well.
  6. Having established the main values of the company, the members of the Board passed over to the discussion of the short-term objectives.
  7. IV. Из данных групп предложений, содержащих придаточные предложения условия, спишите те, в которых действие могло бы относиться к настоящему или будущему времени. Подчеркните сказуемые и переведите предложения
  8. а) If more users were connected to computer networks, e-commerce would develop more rapidly.
  9. b) If more users had been connected to computer networks, e-commerce would have developed more rapidly.
  10. a) The company would have achieved a higher sales level, if the retail price had been decreased.
  11. b) The company would achieve a higher sales level, if the retail price was decreased.
  12. a)Unless experienced managers were hired, such a big corporation would not run business so successfully.
  13. b) Unless experienced managers had been hired, such a big corporation would not have run business so successfully.
  14. a) If governments had reduced restrictions and tariffs, it would have promoted the expansion of world trade.
  15. b) If governments reduced restrictions and tariffs, it would promote the expansion of world trade.
  16. a) If the enterprise applied innovations more effectively, its profits would rise.
  17. b) If the enterprise had applied innovations more effectively, its profits would have risen.
  18. V. Из трех слов выберите одно, соответствующее определению, которое дано выше. Подчеркните его

Модель:

The variety of goods that a company produces or sells

  1. a) rank b) range     c) choice
  2. a company which sells goods to another company
  3. a) customer b) retailer     c) supplier
  4. a charge paid to a person or a bank for the money borrowed
  5. a) loan b) rent     c) interest
  6. a person who reports to you
  7. a) supervisor b) subordinate            c) leader
  8. a group of people that might buy the company’s goods
  9. a) competitive market b) local market c) target market
  10. 5. a sudden collapse
  11. a) boom b) rise c) crash
  12. payment to a person after injury
  13. a) benefit b) compensation c) incentive
  14. a person responsible for promotion and distribution of the company’s goods as well as for market research
  15. a) production manager b) marketing manager      c) sales manager
  16. VI. Выберите подходящие по смыслу слова и вставьте в пропуски. Подчеркните их

Market Research

It is impossible to develop and …1… а product solely on the basis of ….2… That’s much too risky. You can’t just trust the intuition of senior managers or product managers; you have to do market research. We collect and …3… information about the size of а potential market, about consumers’ tastes and …4…, their reactions to particular product features, packaging features, and so on.

Lots of people think that market research just means going out and asking consumers for their …5… of products, but that’s not true. Асtuаllу, talking to customers is а relatively minor market research tооl, because it’s very expensive. In fact, personal interviewing is the very last thing we’d do. We usually find that our own …6… which keeps records of sales, orders, and so on, is а far more important source of information. Our sales representatives are another good source.

There are also а lot of printed sources of secondary …7… we can use, including daily, weekly and monthly business newspapers, magazines and trade journals, our competitors …8… reports, official government …9… , and reports published by private market research companies. We …10… data from customers, middlemen, and so on, if both internal research (analysis of data already available in the accounts and sales departments) and secondary data (available in printed sources) are inadequate.

lf we do go out and do field work it’s usually а survey, which you can use to collect information about product and …11… features, and to measure the effectiveness of advertising copy, advertising media, sales …12…  distribution channels, and so on.

 

Analyse, annual, data, gather, guesswork, habits, accounts department, launch, opinions, packaging, promotions, statistics

Спишите и переведите словосочетания:

  1. to develop and launch a product
  2. the consumers’ tastes and habits
  3. to keep records of sales
  4. to gather data
  5. to do a survey
  6. advertising media

Вариант №2

  1. I. Спишите предложения, поставив сказуемые в пассивном залоге. Используйте предлог by, где это необходимо

Модель:

The company had opened two outlets by the end of the year.

Two outlets had been opened by the company by the end of the year.

 

  1. I have decided that the company would pay my monthly salary into my account in the bank.
  2. Before developing a new product our firm will set up a team of experienced marketing specialists.
  3. All the Ministers will see the President off at the airport.
  4. The shop owners believe that business environment has improved the trade.
  5. Renault produced more than 400,000 cars last year.
  6. Last year the company went bankrupt and made all employees redundant.
  7. II. Спишите предложения и подчеркните сказуемые, содержащие модальные глаголы с перфектным инфинитивом. Переведите предложения
  8. He spent three weeks on the work that should have taken only a day or two.
  9. Mike isn’t home yet. He must have been held up at work.
  10. Nobody knows when the documents disappeared. They might have been stolen.
  11. He can’t have forgotten about the meeting. He talked to me about it only this morning.
  12. I don’t know why they are so late. They could have got lost.

III Спишите предложения, подчеркните причастия, укажите их форму и функцию (см. модель). Переведите предложения

  1. Having decided to offer me the job, the sales manager asked me for a reference.
  2. The consultants, being outsiders, are usually less able to judge how well a candidate will fit into the organization.
  3. The information obtained during the market research will be used in decision-making.
  4. Offering a salary the applicants couldn’t reject, the personnel manager convinced them to accept the job.
  5. Having failed in every career he had attempted Van Gogh turned to art.
  6. Changes in consumers demand have influenced goods quantity and quality demanded.
  7. IV. Из данных групп предложений, содержащих придаточные предложения условия, спишите лишь те, в которых действие могло бы относиться к прошедшему времени. Подчеркните сказуемые и переведите предложения
  8. а) If more users were connected to computer networks, e-commerce would develop more rapidly.
  9. b) If more users had been connected to computer networks, e-commerce would have developed more rapidly.
  10. a) The company would have achieved a higher sales level, if the retail price had been decreased.
  11. b) The company would achieve a higher sales level, if the retail price was decreased.
  12. a) Unless experienced managers were hired, such a big corporation would not run business so successfully.
  13. b) Unless experienced managers had been hired, such a big corporation would not have run business so successfully.
  14. a) If governments had reduced restrictions and tariffs, it would have promoted the expansion of world trade.
  15. b) If governments reduced restrictions and tariffs, it would promote the expansion of world trade.
  16. a) If the enterprise applied innovations more effectively, its profits would rise.
  17. b) If the enterprise had applied innovations more effectively, its profits would have risen.
  18. V. Из трех слов выберите одно, соответствующее определению, которое дано выше. Подчеркните его

Модель:

General term used for all types of stocks and shares

  1. a) investment b) income c) securities

 

  1. a document giving permission to sell something
  2. a) license b) contract c) agreement
  3. a person associated with another person, often in business
  4. a) employer b) partner c) founder
  5. to give money temporarily on the condition that it will be returned
  6. a) lend b) borrow c) pay
  7. reduction in the original price of a product
  8. a) turnover b)discount c) profit
  9. request from the customers for something
  10. a) complaint b) order c) invoice
  11. a person who starts his own business
  12. a) accountant b) entrepreneur c) shopkeeper
  13. a charge paid to a person or a bank for the money borrowed
  14. a) loan b) rent c)interest
  15. 8. working extra hours
  16. a) in shifts b) in time c) overtime
  17. people who buy goods or services
  18. a) users b) customers c) suppliers
  19. a company or a person who is competing against you
  20. a) partner b) franchiser c) rival
  21. VI. Выберите подходящие по смыслу слова и вставьте в пропуски. Подчеркните их

What is Marketing?

А market can be defined as all the potential customers …1… а particular need or want. Marketing is the process of developing, pricing, distributing and promoting the goods or services that satisfy such needs. Marketing therefore combines market research, new product development, distribution, advertising, promotion, product improvement, and so on. According to this definition, marketing begins and ends with the customer. Truly successful marketing …2… the customer so well that the product or service satisfies а need so perfectly that the customer is desperate to buy it. The product almost …3… itself. Of course this will only happen if the product or service is better than those of competitors.

Companies are always looking for marketing opportunities – possibilities of …4… unsatisfied needs. Marketing opportunities are generally isolated by market segmentation ­…5… а market into submarkets or segments according to customers’ requirements or buying habits. Once а target market has been identified, a company has to decide what goods or services to …6… always remembering the existence of competitors.

Marketers do not only identify consumer needs; they can …7… them by developing new products. They will then have to design marketing strategies and plan marketing programmes. Once the basic offer, for example а product concept, has been established, the company has to think about the marketing mix – the set of all the various elements of а marketing programme, their integration, and the amount of effort that а company can expend on them in order to …8… the target market. The best-known classification of these elements is the 4 P’s: Product, Price, Promotion and Place.

Aspects to be considered in marketing а product include its …9…, its features, style, brand name, size, packaging, services and guarantee, while price includes consideration of things like the basic list price, …10…, the length of the payment period, and possible credit terms. Place in а marketing mix includes such factors as …11…, coverage of the market, locations of points of sales. Рromotion groups together advertising, publicity, sales promotion and …12… .

 

Anticipate, dividing, filling, influence, distribution channels, personal selling, offer, discounts, sharing, sells, quality, understands

Спишите и переведите словосочетания:

  1. to develop a product
  2. to satisfy the needs
  3. to offer goods and services
  4. to anticipate the consumer needs
  5. to influence the target market
  6. to consider credit terms

 

 

Контрольное задание №3

 Вариант 1…..

  Вариант 2…..

 

Контрольное задание №4

Вариант 1….

  Вариант 2….

 

  1. ДЛЯ САМОСТОЯТЕЛЬНОЙ РАБОТЫ

The Role of Personnel Management

(The persoппel director describes the structure of the department.)

The department is headed by me as personnel director. I act as the main spokesman of the department and represent personnel issues in all our senior management discussions and also in policy-making meet­ings. Then there are four managers who report to me, though one of the positions is vacant at present. Let’s take them individually.

First, there is our recruitment and selection manager. She is respon­sible for maintaining contact within the community -looking for manpower according to our needs. In fact, she now has to travel extensively to search for qualified job applicants – that’s а feature of the job mar­ket at present.

Next, we have the compensation and benefits manager. He handles the company’s employee benefits programme that’s primarily health insurance and pension plans.

Then, we have the training and development manager. This post is current1y vacant but we are advertising in the national press as well as using other channels: so we hope to have someone installed pretty soon. We have а strong tradition of providing vocational training for our people and а sizeable team of specialists in charge of planning, organizing and directing а wide range of training activities.

Finally, there’s our employee relations manager. She deals with the collective relationship between management and employees and ad­vises us on all aspects of union management relations. So, those are the four managers who are accountable to me; and each manager takes care of а section.

So, moving on. Each of these managers is supported by an individ­ual, or а small team. In recruitment and selection, the manager is assisted by what we саll а recruitment officer. The compensation and benefits manager works with а benefits administrator and а job analyst in а small team. Our training and development manager is supported by two training officers, and they are in charge of а team of some seven instructors. And finally there is our employee relations manager who is supported by two employee relations officers.

Of course, I’ve forgotten to mention our hea1th, safety and welfare people. They are, naturally, part of the management team, but not part of the personnel department. They provide staff or service functions to the whole organization. First1y, there’s the medical officer, who is, in fact, а trained doctor. Then, there is the safety officer, who has two broad activities – to make our work safe and to ensure safe working practices throughout the organization. So, that’s the personnel depart­ment, the sections and the teams, together with the support of the health, safety and welfare people.

How companies  advertise

Advertising informs consumers about the existence and benefits of products and services, and attempts to persuade them to buy them. The best form of advertising is probably word-of-mouth advertising, which occurs when people tell their friends about the benefits of products or services that they have purchased. Yet virtually no providers of goods or services rely on this alone, but use paid advertising instead. Indeed, many organizations also use institutional or prestige advertising which is designed to build up their reputation rather than to sell particular products.

Although large companies could easily set up their own advertising departments, write their own advertisements, and buy media space themselves, they tend to use the services of large advertising agencies. These are likely to have more resources, and more knowledge about all aspects of advertising and advertising media than а single company. The most talented advertising people generally prefer to work for agencies rather then individual companies as this gives them the chance to work on а variety of advertising accounts (contracts to advertise products or services). It is also easier for а dissatisfied company to give its account to another agency than it would be to fire its own advertising staff.

The client company generally gives the advertising agency an agreed budget; а  statement of the objectives of the advertising campaign, known as а brief  and an overall advertising strategy concerning the message to be communicated to the target customers. The agency creates advertisements (the word is often abbreviated to adverts or ads), and develops а media plan specifying which media – newspapers, magazines, radio, television, cinema, posters, mail, etc. – will be used and in which proportions. (On television and radio, ads are often known as commercials.) Agencies often produce alternative ads or commercials that are pre-tested in newspapers, television stations, etc. in different parts of а country before а final choice is made prior to а national campaign.

Marketing strategies

Marketing people do not like to admit that they have anything to do with sales, but, obviously, the whole purpose of marketing is to create а situation in which а sale саn be made.

Buying, selling, market research, transportation, storage, advertising – ­these  are all parts of the complex area of business known as marketing. In simple terms, marketing means the movement of goods and services from manufacturer to customer in order to satisfy the customer and to achieve the company’s objectives.

Marketing can be divided into four main elements that are known as the four P’s : product, price, placement and promotion.

The marketing strategies of determining product, price, placement and promotion are not planned in isolation. Marketing analysts often look at а combination of these four factors. This combination of these four P’s is known as the marketing mix. In order to develop а successful marketing mix researchers first ask two important questions: Who is going to buy the product? What is the potential to sell this product?

The product element of marketing refers to the goods or services that а company wants to sell. Next, а company considers the price to charge for its product. There are three pricing options the company  may take: above, with or below the prices that its competitors are charging. Most companies sell their goods or services for average prices established by major producers in the industry.

The third element of the marketing process – placement – involves getting the product to the customer. This takes place through the channels of distribution. А common channel of distribution is: manufacturer – wholesaler – retailer – customer.

Wholesalers generally sell large quantities of а product to retailers and retailers usually sell smaller quantities to customers.

Finally, communication about the product takes place between buyer and а seller and is known as promotion. There are two major ways of promotion: l) through personnel selling, as in а department store; 2) and through advertising, as in а newspaper or magazine, etc.

Risk

Companies face four types of risk and that is firstly the risk of simply doing nothing. Another type of risk is what’s called credit or guarantee risk. There is also political risk and a final example is the risk of catastrophe or other disruption happening to a business.

Business is all about striking the right balance between risk and reward. The first is the risk of  doing nothing and, strange as it may seem, many businesses make this mistake. This could be the company that tries to pries to preserve the exact position that has always served it well in the past, and here the risk is the company will end up going out business. There are many companies in the world that have done very well on the back of a very simple product, and that is absolutely true. But if you look really closely at what they are doing, you will find that they are constantly reviewing their price, they are constantly reviewing their marketing position and they will also invest really heavily into investing and protecting their brand. So the message here is never do nothing.

The second risk relates to companies that give credit or rely on guarantees from others. Both of these will reduce profits if they go wrong. If you want to increase sales, you need new customers, and this may mean selling on credit. So you ship out a consignment of stock and sit back and wait for the customer to repay you. Unfortunately, sometimes the customer doesn’t repay you. They may have gone out of business or simply they may have “gone away”.  You are relying on the guarantee of a person or a company. Quite often, though, the guarantee is only as good as the person giving the guarantee.

The third risk is to always be aware of the political agenda. You need to know what is on the government’s current agenda. Is that is likely to change, and if so, how will that affect my business?

The fourth and final example of risk is a company being caught up is some sort of catastrophe or other disruption, such as fraud or criminal damage, that causes interruption to trading. The key question here is, does the business have the people and the plans to cope with that sort of disruption and catastrophe?  Many major disruptions have been the end to many good businesses in the past. That is particularly so if the business is located in a single location.

Risk is all about threats and opportunities, and one of the biggest problems that companies face is the quality and the timing of the information that is available on the risks they face. Good information gives you power, and if you have relevant and reliable information, you have a much better chance of managing risk. The management of the risk is absolutely important here, and you need to have a reliable management team that can, in turn, act on that risk.  Once you have identified a threat, you need to have really good communication lines between the key players in the company. Then you can take appropriate and swift action on those risks.

 

Which of the following statements seem to you to be generally true?

  • People dislike work and avoid it if they can.
  • Work is necessary to people’s psychological well-being.
  • People avoid responsibility and would rather be told what to do.
  • People are motivated mainly by money.
  • Most people are far more creative and ingenious than their employers realize.
  • People are motivated by anxiety about their security.
  • People want to be interested in their work and, given the right conditions, they will enjoy it.
  • Under the right conditions, most people will accept responsibility and want to realize their own potential.

 

THEORY X AND THEORY Y

In The Human Side of Enterprise, Douglas McGregor outlined two opposing theories of work and motivation. What he calls Theory X is the traditional approach to workers and working which assumes that people are lazy and dislike work, and that they have to be both threatened (for example, with losing their job) and rewarded. It assumes that most people are incapable of taking responsibility for themselves and have to be looked after. Theory Y, on the contrary, assumes that people have a psychological need to work and want achievement and responsibility.

Later theorists argued that Theory Y makes much greater demands on both workers and managers than McGregor realized. Abraham Maslow, for example, spent a year studying a Californian company that used Theory Y, and concluded that its demands for responsibility and achievement are excessive for many people. He pointed out that there are always weak and vulnerable people, with little self-discipline, who need protection against the burden of responsibility. Even strong and healthy people need the security of order and direction. Managers cannot simply substitute Theory Y for Theory X. They have to replace the security provided by Theory X with a different structure of security and certainty.

 

Summarizing

Read the text again and complete the following sentences, using your own words as much as possible.

1        According to Theory X, employers have to threaten workers because…

2        According to Theory Y, employers should give their workers responsibilities because…

3        Maslow criticized Theory Y because…

4        Maslow argued that even though they might want to be given responsibilities at work…

 

Discussion

One of the most important functions of a manager is to motivate the employees under his or her authority. But how? What kind of things motivate you? Which of the following factors have been or will be important for you in your choice of a job?

Classify them in order of importance.

■  good administration and good                              ■ job security

labour relations                                                         ■ a challenging, interesting and

■  good working conditions: enough                        creative job

space, light, heat and time, not too                           ■  responsibility

much noise, and so on                                               ■  contact with people

■ an adequate wage or salary, and                            ■  opportunities to travel

benefits such as paid holidays, sick                         ■  holidays

pay, a pension, and so on

Are there any other important factors that are not listed here?

 

MARKET LEADERS, CHALLENGERS AND FOLLOWERS

 

1………………………………………………………………………………………….

In most markets there is a definite market leader: the firm with the largest market share. This is often the first company to have entered the field, or at least the first to have succeeded in it. The market leader is frequently able to lead other firms in the introduction of new products, in price changes, in the level or intensity of promotions, and so on.

 

2………………………………………………………………………………………….

Market leaders usually want to increase their market share even further, or at least to protect their current market share. One way to do this is to try to find ways to increase the size of the entire market. Contrary to a common belief, wholly dominating a market, or having a monopoly, is seldom an advantage: competitors expand markets and find new uses and users for products, which enriches everyone in the field, but the market leader more than its competitors. A market can also be expanded by stimulating more usage: for example, many households no longer have only one radio or cassette player, but perhaps one in each room, one in the car, plus a Walkman or two.

3………………………………………………………………………………………….

In many markets, there is often also a distinct market challenger, with the second-largest market share. In the car hire business, the challenger actually advertises this fact: for many years Avis used the slogan ‘We’re number two. We try harder.’ Market challengers can either attempt to attack the leader, or to increase their market share by attacking various market followers.

 

4………………………………………………………………………………………….

The majority of companies in any industry are merely market followers which present threat to the leader. Many market followers concentrate on market segmentation: ding a profitable niche in the market that is not satisfied by other goods or services, and that offers growth potential or gives the company a differential advantage because of its specific competencies.

 

5………………………………………………………………………………………….

A market follower which does not establish its own niche is in a vulnerable position: if its product does not have a ‘unique selling proposition’ there is no reason for anyone to buy it. In fact, in most established industries, there is only room for two or three major companies: think of soft drinks, soap and washing powders, jeans, sports shoes, and so on. Although small companies are generally flexible, and can quickly respond to market conditions, their narrow range of customers causes problematic fluctuations in mover and profit. Furthermore, they are vulnerable in a recession when, largely for psychological reasons, distributors, retailers and customers all prefer to buy from big, well-known suppliers.

 

 

THE FOUR MAJOR PROMOTIONAL TOOLS

The basic idea behind the ‘marketing concept’ – that you make what you can sell rather than sell what you make – does not mean that your product will sell all by itself. Even a good, attractively-priced product that clearly satisfies a need has to be made known to its target customers. During the introduction and growth stages of the standard product life cycle, the producer (or importer, and so on) has to develop product or brand awareness, i.e. inform potential customers (and distributors, dealers and retailers) about the product’s existence, its features, its advantages, and so on.

According to the well-known ‘Four Ps’ formulation of the marketing mix (product, place, promotion and price), this is clearly a matter of promotion. Since budgets are always limited, marketers usually have to decide which tools – advertising, public relations, sales promotion, or personal selling – to use, and in what proportion.

Public relations (often abbreviated to PR) is concerned with maintaining, improving or protecting the image of a company or product. The most important element of PR is publicity which (as opposed to advertising) is any mention of a company’s products that is not paid for, in any medium read, viewed or heard by a company’s customers or potential customers, aimed at assisting sales. Many companies attempt to place stories or information in news media to attract attention to a product or service-Publicity can have a huge impact on public awareness that could not be achieved by advertising, or at least not without an enormous cost. A lot of research has shown that people are more likely to read and believe publicity than advertising.

Sales promotions such as free samples, coupons, price reductions, competitions, and so on, are temporary tactics designed to stimulate either earlier or stronger sales of a product. Free samples, for example, (combined with extensive advertising), may generate the initial trial of a new product. But the majority of products available at any given time are of course in the maturity stage of the life cycle. This may last many years, until the product begins to be replaced by new ones and enters the decline stage. During this time, marketers can try out a number of promotional strategies and tactics. Reduced-price packs in supermarkets, for example, can be used to attract price-conscious brand-switchers, and also to counter a promotion by a competitor. Stores also often reduce prices of specific items as loss leaders which bring customers into the shop where they will also buy other goods.

Sales promotions can also be aimed at distributors, dealers and retailers, to encourage them to stock new items or larger quantities, or to encourage I off-season buying, or the stocking of items related to an existing product. They might I equally be designed to strengthen brand loyalty among retailers, or to gain entry to new markets. Sales promotions can also be aimed at the sales force, encouraging them to increase their activities in selling a particular product.

Personal selling is the most expensive promotional tool, and is generally only used sparingly, e.g. as a complement to advertising. As well as prospecting for customers, spreading information about a company’s products and services, selling these products and services, and assisting customers with possible technical  j problems, salespeople have another important function. Since they are often the only person from a company that customers see, they are an extremely important channel of information. It has been calculated that the majority of new product ideas come from customers via sales representatives.

  1. I. Поставьте вопросы к подчеркнутым членам предложения
  2. They went to New-York.
  3. It takes four hours to get there.
  4. He didn’t think much of it.
  5. He told me exactly what happened.
  6. We are all going to watch the football match.
  7. He broke his leg in a skiing accident.
  8. Tom lost his job because he kept coming late for work.
  9. The concert began at eight p.m.
  10. Jack taught me to play poker.
  11. She asked him for a rise.
  12. I’m looking for a telephone box.
  13. The word “boss” means employer.
  14. They liked Ann’s idea best.
  15. He complained to the manager.
  16. I borrowed my brother’s
  17. Ann gave me duck and green peas for lunch.
  18. There are four hotels in the town.
  19. I’d like to speak to Jones please.
  20. He comes to Moscow about once a month.
  21. I come from Scotland.
  22. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в present perfect или simple past
  23. Paul: I (play) football since l was five years old.

Тоm: You (play) since you (come) to England?

Paul: Oh yes. I (play) quite а lot. I (join) а club the day after I (arrive).

  1. Тоm: You (play) any matches?

Paul: We (play) about ten. We have two more to play. We (have) а very good season, we (win) all our matches so far, though we (not really deserve) to win the last one.

  1. Тоm: I (play) football when I (be) at school but when I (leave) school

I (drop) it and (take) up golf.

  1. Аnn: Hello, Jack! I (not see) you for ages! Where you (be)?

Jack: l (be) in Switzerland. I (mean) to send you а postcard but I (not have) your address with me.

Аnn: Never mind. You (have) а good time in Switzerland? How long you (be) there?

Jack: I (be) there for а month. I only just (get) back. Yes, I (enjoy) it thoroughly. I (ski) all day and (dance) all night.

  1. Аnn: I (ski) when I (be) at the university, but I (break) а leg five years ago and since then I (not do) any.
  2. When I first (come) to this house, it (be) а very quiet area. But since then а new housing estate (be) built and it (become) very noisy.

III. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в past simple или  past  perfect

  1. А: I’m sorry we’re late. We (miss) the train.

В: How …      that (happen)?

А: Well, l … (get) the times wrong and when we … (arrive) at the station, the train … (just leave).

  1. А: … you (have) а good meal at Hilary’s?:

В: Well no,  it … (be) very embarrassing. When we … (arrive), we …(know) immediately that she … (forget) about the whole thing.

А: So, what … (she/do)?

В: Well, she (pretend) that she … (not forget) and ….(say) that the meal           (not be) ready because she … (get) home from work very late.

А: Oh no, how awful!

  1. Job interview

James  (sit) outside the office waiting for the interview. He … (feel) so nervous that he … (not know) what to do with himself. The person who … (go in) before him … (be) in there for nearly an hour. And she … (look) so confident when she … (go) in. Not like James. He … (feel) sure that she …(already get) the job. The problem … (be) that he …(want) this job so much. It … (mean) everything to him. He … (think) about it such а lot before the day of the interview. Не … (imagine) himself performing brilliantly at the interview and being offered the job immediately. But now here he (be) feeling terrible. Не … (cannot remember) all those things he  … (plan) to say. At that moment, he … (almost decide) to get up and leave. But no – he … (have to do) this. Не … (spend) so much time thinking about it that he … (cannot give up) like that. His hands …(be) hot and sticky and his mouth … (feel) dry. Finally the door of the office … (open). The woman who … (go in) an hour earlier … (come out) looking very pleased with herself. She … (smile) sympathetically at James. At that moment James … (hate) her. The managing director then … (appear) at the office door. Would you like to come in now, Mr. Davis? I’m sorry to have kept you waiting. James …(suddenly wish) that he… (go) home after all. He …(get up), legs shaking and forehead sweating and …(wonder) whether he … (look) as terrified as he …(feel).

  1. V. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени пассивного залога
  2. l) There is an old castle in Norwich which (to believe) to (to haunt). It (to call) North Castle and it (to say) that ghosts can (to see) there at night. The castle (to build) 400 years ago and (to own) by two old ladies who (to believe) to be witches. One day, long ago, they both disappeared and they (never, to see) In l980 the castle (to buy) by а businessman and (to convert) into luxurious hotel. The castle (to visit) by quite а few guests every year and special groups (to organize) to watch for ghosts. It has been а long time since any ghosts (to see), but one night а trick (to play) on some visitors by а local couple, who dressed up as the two “witches”. They (to see) by а guest, who said she (to frighten) almost to death. The couple apologized the next day and (to tell) never to visit the castle again, certainly not in the middle of the night dressed up as witches. .

2) Professor Higgins, who (to award) а major science prize last month (to invite) to take part in а conference which (to hold) in London last week. Не (to meet) at the airport by а driver who, unfortunately, (to give) the name of the wrong hotel to take the professor to. А large reception (to organize) for the professor, and at least 200 eminent scientists (to invite) to meet him that evening. The poor professor, however, (to leave) at а small hotel in а rather bad area, and when he asked to

speak to the Head of the Conference Committee, he (to tell) to try somewhere else because he (not, to hear of) there. Luckily, later that evening, the driver (to send) to the hotel where the reception (to hold), and when he (to ask) what he had done with the professor, everyone realized that а mistake (to make). The professor says that if he (ever, to send), another invitation to а conference, he hopes it (to organize) more efficiently.

  1. VI. Поставьте глаголы в скобках в соответствующем времени. Предложения содержат придаточные предложения условия. (Реальное или нереальное условие)
  1. We wanted to go out yesterday, but the weather was terrible. If it (to be) a nice day, we (to go) for a picnic.
  2. Why don’t you explain everything to him? If you (not to tell) him the truth. I’m sure you (to regret) it one day.
  3. Jennifer was here not long ago. If you (to come round) earlier, you (to see) her.
  4. Apparently, the ferry company are planning to close the port in this town. If that (to happen), the town (to lose) a great deal of money.
  5. I (to help) you with it if I (to have) more time, but I’m afraid I haven’t got any spare time at all at moment.
  6. The government is expecting to win the next election, but if it (to lose), the Prime Minister (to resign) from politics.
  7. I am so glad that you took me to your friend’s party. If we (not to go) there, I (never to meet) Adrian.
  8. It’s ridiculous that trains are so expensive. If fares (to be) cheaper, I’m sure more people (to use) the train and leave the car at home.
  9.   Fortunately the explosion took place at night when the streets were empty. It (to be) a disaster if it (to happen) in the middle of the day.
  10. They have been married for 20 years now but I don’t think she (to marry) him if she (to know) what a selfish man he was.
  11.  Children spend too much time watching television and playing computer games. I’m sure they (to be) happier if they (to spend) more time playing outside.
  12. Ben has everything he wants but he’s always moaning. I’m sure that if I (to have) so much money, I (not to moan) all the time.

VII. Speak about yourself:

  1. Where do you work?
  2. Is it a public or a private company (partnership, sole proprietorship, joint venture)?
  3. How long have you been with the company?
  4. Where is your head office based?
  5. What is the size of the work-force?
  6. What is your position?
  7. What are your responsibilities?
  8. What benefits does your job offer (excellent salary, bonuses, company car)?
  9. Do you enjoy working in a team and dealing with the public?
  10. Are there any chances of promotion?
  11. What are your long-range goals?

VIII. Выберете правильный вариант:

  1. A heavy ….. was imposed on the company because it broke the contract.
  2. a) sum; b) incentive; c) penalty.
  3. ….. is a business system in which a company sells an individual the right to operate a business using its brand name and reputation.
  4. a) retailing; b) franchising; c) wholesaling.
  5. Our team is carrying out the research to determine the best way to ….. employees.
  6. a) suit; b) motivate; c) rationalize.
  7. We are planning to invest a great sum of money in sponsorship in order to improve our firm’s ….. .
  8. a) image and reputation; b) financial position; c) accounts.
  9. When two or more people want to start a business together they can set up a ….. .
  10. a) corporation; b) concern; c) partnership.
  11. The credit ….. which they suggested can’t be accepted. They seem too tough.
  12. a) terms; b) conditions; c) loans.
  13. We decided to carry out a market research to discover what ….. people had of our product.
  14. a) confidence; b) perception; c) manage.
  15. To share responsibilities to let others take decisions.
  16. a) lead; b) delegate; c) manage.
  17. Big companies can’t rely exclusively on their ….. markets. They have to become more international in their outlook if they want to survive.
  18. a) consumer; b) competitive; c) domestic.
  19. ….. is the business of selling goods in large quantities and usually at low prices.
  20. a) retailing; b) wholesaling; c) franchising.
  21. IX. Вставьте нужный вспомогательный глагол с перфективным инфинитивом.
  22. I’ve done all calculations. But you (not do) all that work. We have a computer to do that sort of thing. You (tell) me! Then I (not waste) my time!
  23. He failed the exam, but he (pass) it (He had the ability to pass it). It’s all his own fault. He (work) much harder during the term.
  24. Passenger: Fares are awful! I had to play 2 pounds  for my ticket and 1 pound for the baby.

Another passenger: But you (not buy) a ticket for the baby. Babies travel free.

  1. I bought a sweater at Marks and Spenser’s last Sunday. You (not buy) it on Sunday. Marks and Spenser’s is shut on Sundays.
  2. I had to walk home yesterday. I had no money for my fare. You (tell) me. I (lend) you the money.
  3. I found they knew all my movements for the past week. They (bribe) one of my colleagues to give them the information.
  4. X. Дополните следующие предложения придаточными предложениями условия.
  5. If my job were more important ….. .
  6. If she hadn’t worked hard ….. .
  7. If I had fringe benefits and promotion like you ….. .
  8.    She wouldn’t have given up her job if ….. .
  9. They would have paid you more if ….. .
  10. If you took a course in computer programming ….. .
  11. Why didn’t you say that you were short of money? If I had known I …… you some.
  12. Unless the company had issued bonds ….. .
  13. XI. Выберете к словам и словосочетаниям русские эквиваленты:
  14. chairman                                            a. правление компании
  15. managing director                             b. председатель
  16. production manager                           c. менеджер по рекламе
  17. marketing manager             d. менеджер по маркетингу
  18. purchasing manager             e. начальник производства
  19. sales manager f. менеджер по закупкам
  20. chief accountant g. менеджер по продажам
  21. advertising manager             h. главный бухгалтер
  22. training manager             i. менеджер по подготовке кадров
  23. board of directors j. управляющий по административно-                                                                                    хозяйственной работе
  • — Катерина, гор.Москва

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    получила работу, спасибо большое, все очень оперативно, буду рекомендовать Вас!

  • — Оксана

    Здравствуйте! Спасибо за контрольную по бух.учету! Сдала на отлично)